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Johannesburg is a large city in Gauteng Province of South Africa. It was established as a small village controlled by a Health Committee in with the discovery of an outcrop of a gold reef on the farm Langlaagte. The population of the city grew rapidly,becoming a municipality in In it became a city making Johannesburg the largest city in South Africa.

In it joined ten other municipalities to form the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. Today, it is a centre for learning and entertainment for all of Africa. It is also the capital of Gauteng. The region surrounding Johannesburg was originally inhabited by San people. They were hunter-gatherers who used stone tools. There is evidence that they lived there up to ten centuries ago. Stone-walled ruins of Sotho—Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal in which Johannesburg is situated.

Many of these sites contain the ruins of Sotho—Tswana mines and iron smelting furnaces, suggesting that the area was being exploited for its mineral wealth before the arrival of Europeans or the discovery of gold. The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace.

After the Great Trek European pastoralists also started trading for beginners dubai centre benoni in the Transvaal. Some of them chose to farm where Johannesburg was to rise later. Each burgher citizen was entitled to at least one farm, measuring morgen or about acres. The first recorded discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand was made by Jan Gerrit Bantjes in Juneon the farm Vogelstruisfontein.

Other farms to become famous later included Langlaagte, Turffontein, Trading for beginners dubai centre benoni and Braamfontein. George Harrison is today credited as the man who discovered an outcrop of the Main Reef of gold on the farm Langlaagte in February Two days later Colonel Ignatius Ferreira staked out his camp on Turffontein to serve as a centre for diggers.

On 8 November a diggers' committee was elected to assist the mining commissioner in the execution of his duties. The earliest mining activities were concentrated along and adjacent to the outcrops of the main reef. Initially the diggers could perform the work themselves, using relatively little equipment. As the pits grew deeper, they needed additional labourers and machinery. Black Africans were recruited to perform the unskilled work.

Machinery had to be imported from Europe and fuel had to be found to power the machinery. It soon became apparent that individual diggers were not equal to the task of mining gold in Johannesburg.

Wealth trading for beginners dubai centre benoni only be recovered by means of deep-shaft working and by capital-intensive companies having the necessary technical skills. The amalgamation of smaller mining groups became a common occurrence and by the scene was dominated by a limited number of large monopolistic companies. In Johannesburg's first stock exchange was opened. From then until today Johannesburg has been the seat of the South African stock exchange and the country's financial heartland.

The Zuid-Afrikaansche Republic became the single biggest gold producer in the world, with a contribution of 27,5 percent in The fledgling town of Johannesburg was laid out on a triangular wedge of "uitvalgrond" area excluded when the farms were surveyed named Randjeslaagte, situated between the farms Doornfontein to the east, Braamfontein to the west and Turffontein to the south.

The Surveyor-General of the ZAR issued an instruction that the farm be surveyed as a township, consisting of stands measuring fifty feet by fifty feet.

The first auction of stands took place on 8 December The two men combined trading for beginners dubai centre benoni name they shared, adding 'burg', the archaic Afrikaans word for 'fortified city'. Early in the inhabitants started petitioning the government to proclaim a town council for the area. Eventually in November a proclamation was issued instituting a health committee. Its area was defined as "the place Johannesburg, including the stands known as Marshall Town and Ferreira's Town".

The area of the committee's jurisdiction was to be divided into five wards. Each ward could elect one committee member. All adult male inhabitants had the vote. In six wards were proclaimed, each ward being entitled to elect two committee members. It was only in that the government approved, in terms of Act 9 ofa town council for Johannesburg.

In terms of the Act the area was divided into 12 wards. Each trading for beginners dubai centre benoni could elect two town councillors, one of which had to be a citizen of the ZAR. The Post Office was trading for beginners dubai centre benoni one time the tallest building in Johannesburg. The Post Office became a trading for beginners dubai centre benoni monument inand it remained in operation until when the South African Post Office vacated the building.

The monument was gutted by a fire in Colonials, escaping the boredom of small-town life, joined Indians trekking from the sugar fields of Natal. Cape Coloureds and Chinese shopkeepers mixed with Africans, eager to experience the fast pace of urban life. Artisans and miners from the gold and silver fields of the Americas and Australia, from coal and tin mines of Europe, joined the wagon loads of men who had learnt their craft in the pits of Kimberley. Jews in search of freedom and trading for beginners dubai centre benoni, headed south to Africa from Eastern Europe and Russia.

Mine managers and businessmen, solicitors and engineers, men with skills, education and contacts, confident of their expertise and frequently arrogant in their manner, took up positions in the burgeoning city of Johannesburg and in the new mines along the reef. In addition there were the pimps and adventurers, crooks and philanderers. In January the Health Committee conducted its first census of the town.

The following suburbs were recorded: Another census was conducted in January From the start the city segregated itself spatially in terms of class and, to a lesser extent, race. Julius Jeppe and his partner, a certain Ford, bought a portion of the farm Turffontein. They had two townships surveyed and called them Fordsburg and Jeppestown. Both were next to the mines along the Main Reef.

The stands in Fordsburg were auctioned is Maybut the prices were very low because trading for beginners dubai centre benoni soil was marshy. The result was that white working-class families settled in Jeppestown and in Fordsburg factories, bars and "kafir-eating houses" sprang up.

Just north of Jeppestown is Doornfontein, then known as a 'classy' suburb, where professional and commercial men lived. Many Jews lived there trading for beginners dubai centre benoni well. In they opened a school in Fox Street, but it grew so fast that they had to move to bigger premises in End Street, next to Doornfontein.

To the west of Doornfontein was Braamfontein, where white wage earners with families and single white men lived. Quite a big stream flowed along the farm and they intended selling the water to the residents of Johannesburg. But there were also large quantities of clay, suitable for brickmaking, along the stream. The government decided that more money was to be made from issuing brick maker's licences at five shillings per month.

They also erected their shacks there. Soon the area was known either as Brickfields or Veldschoendorp. The government, trading for beginners dubai centre benoni sought to differentiate the white working class from the black, trading for beginners dubai centre benoni out new suburbs for the Burghers, Indians, Coloureds and Africans, but the whole area simply stayed multiracial. The railway line and goods yards were just north of these slum areas. On 19 February there was a great dynamite explosion in the railway goods yard at Braamfontein.

The explosion left a crater feet long, 60 feet wide and 30 feet deep. At least 78 people were killed and injured. The suburbs was opened to white who could acquire the stands on leasehold for a mere two shillings and sixpence a month. Many whites took up the offer and then trading for beginners dubai centre benoni the stands to Indians for five shillings a trading for beginners dubai centre benoni.

On the mines living conditions were harsh and alienating, particularly for the Africans who lived in large compounds. They were placed in bunk houses, which were overcrowded and cold in winter, where food was tedious and not abundant and where pulmonary disease was rife.

White miners lived differently, though not in overwhelming comfort. Meanwhile, at the northern extremity of the town was Parktown, already known for its exclusivity and extreme wealth. Today it is part of the Sunny Side Park Hotel. The law of the land provided trading for beginners dubai centre benoni every White European male who had resided in the Transvaal for five years, could be naturalized and become entitled to vote for a representative in the Volksraad house of assembly.

The solution was to create a Second Volksraad. Uitlanders who had been naturalized for two years were granted the right to vote for candidates for the Second Volksraad. The bills of this body only became law after ratification by the First Volksraad.

The residential qualification enabling Uitlanders to vote for the First Volksraad was extended from five to fourteen years and the voting age increased to forty years. Only a small number of Uitlanders took the trouble to register as voters for the Second Volksraad. Some of their main complaints were nepotism and corruption of officials. What upset them most was that the prices and quality of essential goods for the mining industry were adversely affected by the trading for beginners dubai centre benoni system of concessions.

These included the supply of water to Johannesburg, the manufacture and distribution of liquor and dynamite and the construction of railway lines. The Jameson Raid was a failure and all the culprits were arrested. Afterwards the British Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlaintook up the cause of the Uitlanders in their fight for the franchise.

By May it began to look as though war was a real possibility. First to leave were the wives and children of middle and upper-class families.

By June white miners joined the flight.

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