Packet Analyzer - Part I

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A packet analyzer also known as a network analyzer, protocol analyzer, or packet sniffer is a computer program that possibly with hardware support can obtain a copy of traffic passing over a computer network or segment of a network. As data streams flow across the network, the analyzer captures a copy of each packet, and decodes the packet, showing the contents of various fields in the packet headers and payload. Most analyzers can be configured to select some packets and ignore others.

For example, a user can specify that the analyzer only display IP traffic, only display UDP traffic, etc. The meaning of fields in the packet are determined according to the appropriate standards e. Without a packet analyzer, it is almost impossible to understand what's actually happening under the hood in a network system.

If two computers cannot communicate, a packet analyzer shows whether the are indeed sending packets, whether the packets are formatted correctly according to the standards, and netpacket tcp printing options in binary form the packet exchange is proceeding according to what the programmer expects.

In addition, a packet analyzer helps us understand protocol operation. There is a wrapper around tcpdumpcalled tcpdumpwrapwhich has been made netpacket tcp printing options in binary form to you to see how a packet analyzer looks like. This captures all the packets on the network interface eth0. Now setup a communication channel for this port to simulate network traffic.

The simplest way would be to send ping requests to the interface. Alternatively, you can use nc netcat to establish a connection as follows. Analyze packets on xinu01 on the interface eth0. And send some data to xinu01 from, say, xinu Anything typed at the second console will be sent to the first, and vice-versa.

Now, you would see packets being displayed in the output of tcpdumpwrap-eth0. For example, the time to live, identification, total length and options in an IP packet are printed. This is just a demonstration of how a packet analyzer works.

There are many more complex packet analyzers, out of which a popular choice is Wireshark. It is very similar to tcpdumpbut has a graphical front-end, plus some integrated sorting and filtering options.

You can use Wireshark on your machine to analyze packets. Xinu was also used for some models of Lexmark printers and in other commercial products. In netpacket tcp printing options in binary form rest of the labs, you will implement a packet analyzer in Xinu. First, you need to download the source code netpacket tcp printing options in binary form Xinu from the following URL and learn how to compile and run it on the Xinu netpacket tcp printing options in binary form machines in the following guide.

First, log onto one of the front-ends xinu Before running Xinu on one of the backend machines, you must first compile Xinu source code into a binary. Now, you have your binary named xinu under the directory. Note that you should compile every time you make changes to the Xinu source code. Now, this is time to download your Xinu binary to one of the backend machines and run it.

Backends are named from galileo to galileo You should pick a free backend to run your Xinu binary. Assume that you picked galileo which was free. Netpacket tcp printing options in binary form, simply using cs-console -c quark will return the first available backend machine to you.

After downloading, you should powercycle the machine. Please do not leave a running copy of your Xinu on a backend. This will prevent anyone from using that backend and will create problems when more people want the backends.

To see what packets are actually being received, you need to obtain a copy of all Ethernet frames netpacket tcp printing options in binary form arrive, and dump the packet in appropriate format. In our Lab 06, we will dump the Ethernet frame packet to just print out source address, destination address, packet type, and first 15 bytes after the Ethernet type in hexadecimal format. You will need to understand the structure of an Ethernet frame.

For example, if the frame has MAC source address 0xa1a2a3a4a5a6MAC netpacket tcp printing options in binary form address 0xb1b2b3b4b5b6an Ethernet type field that indicates IPv4, and first 15 bytes of the payload are: For other types, you should print the type value in hexadecimal in the form 0xXXXXwhere the uppercase X's are hex digits. To find the official types, look at http: Remember that all fields in headers are in network byte order when you receive a packet.

Instead, when implementing packetdump function, you must use kprintf. Before dumping your packet, you need to enable promiscuous mode. Promiscuous mode makes the controller accept and pass along all traffic it receives rather than passing only the frames that the controller is intended to receive.

This mode is normally used for packet sniffing that takes place on a router or on a computer connected to a hub instead of netpacket tcp printing options in binary form switch. Make sure that netstart is the very first function call in main. When successfully implemented, you should see the output of packetdump like this following snippet:. Instead of dumping only received packets, dump outgoing ethernet frame packets as well.

You should look for the appropriate location to call your dumping out function. When printing outgoing packet, use following format:. For example, if the message sent from bb: User Tools Log In. Learn what packet analyzers aka sniffers do and why they are needed. When tcpdump finishes capturing packets, it will report counts of: To use Xinu, several environment variables must be set. After getting the backend machine, you should type control- OR control-spacebar to escape to the local command mode.

Xinu for galileo -- version 4 rkarandi Mon Feb 22 Remember that all fields in headers are in network byte order when you receive a packet Important note: To enable promiscuous code, you should use the following function: When successfully implemented, you should see the output of packetdump like this following snippet: Does Xinu correctly print out source, destination, packet type, and first 15 bytes in hexadecimal?

When printing outgoing packet, use following format: Note that your directory structure should look like this: Run make clean before you turnin your work.

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