Demographics of Malaysia
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Malaysia SabahLabuan. Dusun is the collective name of a tribe or ethnic and linguistic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah of North Borneo. Due to similarities in culture and language with the Kadazan ethnic group, a new unified term called " Kadazan-Dusun " was created.
Collectively, they form the largest ethnic group in Sabah. A small minority of Dusuns can also be found in Brunei where they are defined by the constitution to be one of the seven Bumiputera groups. One interesting fact about the Dusuns is that they do not have the word 'dusun' in their vocabulary. It has been suggested that the term 'Dusun' was a term used by the Sultan of Brunei to refer to the ethnic groups of inland farmers in present-day Sabah.
Since most of the west coast of North Borneo were under the influence of the Sultan of Brunei, taxes called 'Duis' also referred to as the 'River Tax' on the area of south east of North Borneo were collected by the sultanate from the 'Orang Kensui trading options, or 'Dusun people'.
Hence, sinceafter the establishment of the British Kensui trading options Borneo Company, the British administration categorized the kensui trading options, 12 main and 33 sub tribes collectively as 'Dusun' though among themselves they are simply known kensui trading options their own dialect as just "human" or in their Bobolian term "kadayan" or "kadazan" in Tangaa version.
The Tambanuo and Bagahak, who had converted to Islam for religious reason, had preferred to kensui trading options called kensui trading options and "Idaan" respectively although they come from the same sub tribes.
This had open their minds and began to get involved in community Development. The tribes who were first exposed to this modernisation was the Tangaa or Tangara who dwelt in the Papar and Penampang coastal plains who were responsible to spread the passion of nationalism to the other tribes. The first attempt to translate kensui trading options Bible was in Kadazan Tangaaalso referred to as the "z" dialect.
This was followed by a Kadazan Tangaa Dictionary. They are mostly mutually understandable. The name 'Dusun' was popularised by the British colonial masters who borrowed the term from the Brunei Malays. Most Dusuns have converted to mainstream religions such as Christian majority Roman Catholics and Protestants alike and Islam although animism is still being practised by a small group of Dusun.
The Dusun of old traded with the coastal people by bringing their agricultural and forest produce such as rice and amber 'damar' to exchange for salt, kensui trading options fish, and other products.
The Dusun have a special term to describe this type of trading activities i. The present Tambunan-Penampang road was largely constructed based on the trading route used by kensui trading options Bundu-Liwan Dusun to cross the Crocker Range on their 'mongimbadi'. The vast majority of Dusuns live in the hills and upland valleys and have a reputation for peacefulness, hospitality, hard work, frugality, drinking, and are averse to violence. Now they have very much been modernised and absorbed into the larger framework of the Malaysian society, taking up various occupations as government servants, and employees in the private sector, as well as becoming business owners.
Many have achieved tertiary education both locally and overseas in America, England, Australia and New Zealand. In their old traditional setting they use various kensui trading options of fishing, including using the juice called "tuba" derived from the roots of the "surinit" plant to momentarily stun fish in rivers.
From an anthropological point of view, it's not clear from where the ethnic Dusun Lotud came from. However, based on anecdotes or folklore, the Dusun have been known kensui trading options come from Nunuk Ragang or the red-coloured 'Kayu Ru' tree colour situated at Kampong Tampias in the district of Ranau. The Kensui trading options in Sabah and Brunei Darussalam are similar in customs but some of their words are different. From the time before religious disciplines set in Southeast Asia, the ethnic Lotud were pagans and even today they are atheists.
Bruneians use the word 'Dusun' to identify farmers who have a piece of land planted with fruits or tend orchards. The British British North Chartered Company used the word since then to refer to the people. Kensui trading options to researchers the ethnic Lotud were synonymous with the word 'Suang Lotud' and can be found in 35 villages in Tuaran district.
Kensui trading options ethnic Dusun Lotud called Lotude were based on the anecdotes not written by their ancestors. The Lotud women were known to wear skirts below the knees only. The word 'otud' in Dusun Lotud dialect means 'Lutut' or knee. The 'Adat' or Custom of 'Dusun Lotud' marriage processes is divided into 35 segments like Suruhan, merisik or bilateral meetingmonunui bertunang or engagementpopiodop 'bermalam' or stay a night atau ditidur or 'sleeping together'Matod kahwin or wedding and mirapou 'adat' or custom.
Before the s, the partners for Dusun Lotud children were chosen by their parents. The children had no choice except to accept what their parents required for the matching partners without any help.
The main objective aims to have good generations of a family: The male's family will appoint an elderly person known as 'suruhan' qualified on the 'adat resam' and will visit the female's house for the purpose of 'merisik' or negotiating. The 'Suruhan' is aimed at delivering a message to engage the daughter from the female's family.
The girl's family requests for a duration of days before the 'Risikan' or negotiation could be accepted. Many matters have to be clearly made known like the family tree, character, the capability of the male's side, and to evaluate the meaning of a dream that occurred in the female's family.
If the female's side had a bad dream, 'sogit mimpi' is done for 'perdamaian' or peace. Based on 'adat', when the male's had no 'suruhan' or appointee, they can be fined on 'adat malu' by the girl's family.
Adat Monunui 'bertunang' or engagement side the proposal of marriage or 'risikan' is accepted by the girl's side, both parties will discuss to fix the date for 'Adat Monunui' They will find the suitable kensui trading options and month in the Dusun Lotud calendar like the night of the 14th in a one-month cycle called 'tawang kopiah' or the 15th night called tolokud, to perform 'monunui'.
As a symbol of engagement, the man's side will give a ring to the woman only. After completion of the ceremony, the man's family members have to leave the woman's home before 4pm.
In the 'adat monunui', the head of village and the appointee are kensui trading options frontline kensui trading options in the ceremony. Both parties of the families will be represented by the head of village. Kensui trading options man's will not be kensui trading options in the girl's living room before the 'monunui' ends. The list of valuables equivalent to dowry items delivered to the girl are 'karo aman tunggal', 'karo lawid', 'kalro inontilung', 'karo dsapau', 'kemagi lawid', 'kemagi 3 rondog', 'badil' or cannon, 'tajau' or vase, 'canyang tinukul', 'tatarapan', two pieces of 'rantakah', two pieces of 'sigar emas', 'simbong bersiput', 'pertina', 'tompok', gong tawag-tawag'tutup panasatan' 'canyang''kampil', 'kulintangan', two pieces of 'simbong bersiput'.
At the traditional pre-speech, 'adat berian' or dowry custom and belanja dapur or kitchen expenses, the heads of the villages from kensui trading options man's and girl's sides will start the pre-discussion. They have prepared some pieces of 'kirai' or the mangrove palm shoot rolled, dried and turned to make cigaretteor the kensui trading options sticks as a symbol of notes equivalent to RM1, each.
The girl's side will make some requests of the man's side. The period to perform a marriage ceremony is one year. The man's family will request for an adjournment of the marriage if the man's kensui trading options a financial problem.
The 'belanja dapur' or kitchen expenses is estimated above Kensui trading options, and a moderate fat buffalo. The purpose of kensui trading options grant dowry is for the construction of a house when the married couple has children. Based on tradition, if the bridegroom does not have assets like land, the 'berian four binukul valuable archaic items will be mentioned with the value of RM1, The Dusuns of Tambunan were not always as politically united as they are today.
Legend has it that the Dusuns of Tambunan consisted of two rival groups who settled into the valley at varying period in the past.
One group was led by a person named Gombunan and the other by Tamadon. Inter-tribal conflicts emerge however when the settlers began to coalesce into new groups such as the Tagahas and the Liwans. The formation of these groupings were not based on locations of the villages or of linguistic dialects. The kensui trading options arose out of a need to uphold certain natural social principles during the British pre-colonial era when the absence of the Law, led to the kensui trading options of the principle of "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as the tool for exacting compliance to certain standards of behaviour.
The narrative about a Dusun warrior named Bungkar, whose existence can be historically dated, will illustrate this. The tale of Bungkar also explain the origin of headhunting among the Dusuns of Tambunan, and the beginning of civil government in the Tambunan valley. Bungkar's original home was in the hills of Pahu, an area close to Ranau. Upon attaining the age of a teenager, he undertook a long journey to a place called Sayap overlooking the Kota Belud district and stayed there for three years.
The purpose of his stay was to learn the art of sword fighting and other related pre-Christian skills such as "pinjodop", "pilumou" and "pilubok". Among the learners who came from various districts were the "Tagahas". Bungkar was not a Tagahas. He was a mix of Bundu-Liwan. Kensui trading options Bundu-Liwans were a Dusunic tribal group whose original homeland were the foothills of an area called Libodon in the district of Tuaran. After completing his training, Bungkar paid his trainer the customary kensui trading options Kimanis", a traditional gong handcrafted in Brunei.
In return he received a "gayang" or sword. Thereafter he returned to Pahu and persuaded the extended family to move to Tambunan. At that time Tambunan was spasely populated by the descendants of Gambunan and Tamadon and land was aplenty. In Tambunan, at a place called Borotutuon, in the padi fields of Dambatu, he built a fort-like residence, surrounding it with sharpened wooden stakes.
Meanwhile, the Tagahas were also moving into the fertile Tambunan valley. The word Tagahas means "the strong". The Tagahas originated from the headwaters of the Penampang District. They were a strong Dusunic tribe whose name were given to them by the Dusun Tangaah of Penampang. Their strength were manifested in their being popularly employed by Chinese traders to carry trade goods over the mountains of the Crocker Range, most notably along what is now known as "The Salt Trail".
Soon after, the Tagahas from Kituntul raided Bungkar's home, taking kensui trading options several buffaloes. Buffaloes were considered important properties then. No blood was shed however during this raid, as Bungkar and all the males in the family were knocked down asleep by "pinjodop" a kensui trading options of pagan prayer that induces sleep. The women were also made "compliant" by the pagan charm known as "pilubok" which made one psychologically willing sacrifice and they handed over "everything" to the charmer, including prized properties such as buffaloes and other livestock.
Still other males, who were not initially present at the village or knocked down earlier by the "pinjodop", were later affected by the charm "pilumou" which evoked a sense of great pity in one affected, thus evading any violence. These charms would be equivalent to today's concept of mass hypnotism. After recovering his senses, Bungkar gathered his people and a decision was made for Bungkar, a trained warrior, to lead a small group to give chase.
Yumpiau, an untrained brother of Bungkar, volunteered to join as one who would lead any recovered livestock back. Two brothers, Kondoud and Kindipan, also volunteered. A brave young boy named Bolinti also volunteered but Bungkar refused to take him in as he was too young and untrained.
This Bolinti would later appear in the list of names of those who joined the early Borneo Chartered Company Police Force. After making inquiries, Kensui trading options received a message from a cousin named Rumantai that the Tagahas raiders had gone into hiding with their loot near his farm in the south of Tambunan valley.
Rumantai was a "kososoluon", or neutral, residing among the Tagahas. The Tagahas were waiting for nightfall to move the stolen livestock by moonlight. They were travelling to an area called Kapagalan Sawa.