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Studies show that patients with RCDI have abnormally proportioned colon microbiota, and that reintroduction of normal bacteria via donor feces corrects this imbalance, restoring phylogenetic richness and colonization resistance. The first documented case of confirmed RCDI treated with FMT was reported in 1983 in a 65-year-old woman who had prompt and complete normalization of bowel function (94).
Up until 1989, retention enemas had been the most common technique for FMT; however, alternative methods subsequently were used, including fecal infusion via nasogastric duodenal tube in 1991 (95), colonoscopy in 2000 (96), and self-administered enemas in 2010 (97). By 2011, approximately 325 cases of FMT had been reported worldwide, including approximately 75 by colonoscopy or retention enema, and 25 by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, or by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (98,99).
Overall, mean cure rates to date are approximately 91 (99).