The Future of Technology and its Impact on Our Lives

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. For Americans to enjoy optimal health—as individuals and as a population—they must have the benefit of high-quality health care services that are effectively coordinated within a strong public health system.

This chapter addresses the issues of access, managing chronic disease, neglected health care services i. In addition, the chapter discusses the responsibility of the health care system to recognize and play its appropriate role within the intersectoral public health system, particularly as it collaborates with the governmental public health agencies.

The health care sector in the United States consists of an array of clinicians, hospitals and other health care facilities, insurance plans, and purchasers of future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi care services, all operating in various configurations of groups, networks, and independent practices. Some are based in the public sector; others operate in the private sector as either for-profit or not-for.

The health care sector also includes regulators, some voluntary and others governmental. Communication, collaboration, or systems planning among these various entities is limited and is almost incidental to their operations.

For convenience, however, the committee uses the common terminology of health care delivery system. As described in Crossing the Quality Chasm IOM, b and other literature, this health care system is faced with serious quality and cost challenges.

In the aggregate, these per capita expenditures account for As the committee observed in Chapter 1American medicine and the basic and clinical research that inform its practice are generally acknowledged as the best in the world.

Fundamental flaws in the systems that finance, organize, and deliver health care work to undermine the organizational structure necessary to ensure the future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi translation of scientific discoveries into routine patient care, and many parts of the health care delivery system are economically vulnerable.

Insurance plans and providers scramble to adapt and survive in a rapidly evolving and highly competitive market; and the variations among health insurance plans—whether public or private—in eligibility, benefits, cost sharing, plan restrictions, reimbursement policies, and other attributes create confusion, inequity, and excessive administrative burdens for both providers of care and consumers.

Because of its history, structure, and particularly the highly competitive market in health services that has evolved since the collapse of health care reform efforts in the early s, the health care delivery system often does not interact effectively with other components of the public health system described in this report, in particular, the governmental public health agencies.

State health departments often have legal authority to regulate the entry of providers and purchasers of health care into the market and to set insurance reimbursement rates for public and, less often, private providers and purchasers. They may control the ability of providers to acquire desired technology and perform complex, costly procedures that are important to the hospital but increase demands on state revenues.

Finally, virtually all states have the legal responsibility to. Many health care providers argue that such regulation adds to their costs, and high-profile future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi can create additional tensions that impede collaboration between the state public health agency and the health care delivery system.

Furthermore, when the delivery of health care through the private sector falters, the responsibility for providing some level of basic health care services to the poor and other special populations falls to governmental public health agencies as one of their essential public health services, as discussed in Chapter 1. In many jurisdictions, this default is already occurring, consuming resources and impairing the ability of governmental public health agencies to perform other essential tasks.

Drawing heavily on the work of other IOM committees, this chapter examines the influence that health insurance exerts on access to health care and on the range of care available, as well as the shortcomings in the quality of services provided, some of the constraints on the capacity of the health care system to provide high-quality care, and the need for better collaboration within the public health system, especially among governmental public health agencies and the organizations in the personal health care delivery system.

Health care is not the only, or even the strongest, determinant of health, but it is very important. For most Americans, having health insurance— under a private plan or through a publicly financed program—is a threshold requirement for routine access to health care. It is also associated with having a regular source of care and with greater and more appropriate use of health services. Private insurance is predominantly purchased through employment-based groups and to a lesser extent through individual policies Mills, Publicly funded insurance is provided primarily through seven government programs see Table 5—1.

Medicare provides coverage to Additionally, public funding supports directly. Because the largest public programs are directed to the aged, disabled, and low-income populations, they cover a disproportionate share of the chronically ill and disabled. However, they are also enormously important for children. Being uninsured, although not the only barrier to obtaining health care, is by all indications the most significant one.

Those without health insurance or without insurance for particular types of services face serious, sometimes insurmountable barriers to necessary and appropriate care. Adults without health insurance are far more likely to go without health care that they believe they need than are adults with health insurance of any kind Lurie et al.

Children without health insurance may be compromised in ways that will diminish their health and productivity throughout their lives. When individuals cannot access mainstream health care services, they often seek care from the so-called safety-net providers. These providers include institutions and professionals that by mandate or mission deliver a large amount of care to uninsured and other vulnerable populations. People turn to safety-net providers for a variety of reasons: Safety-net providers are also more likely to offer outreach and enabling services e.

Yet the public and many elected officials seem almost willfully ignorant of the magnitude, persistence, and implications of this problem. Surveys conducted over the past two decades show a consistent underestimation of the number of uninsured and of trends in insurance coverage over time Blendon et al. The facts about uninsurance in America are sobering see Box 5—1.

By almost any metric, uninsured adults suffer worse health status and live shorter lives than insured adults IOM, a. Because insurance status affects access to secure and continuous care, it also affects health, leading to an estimated 18, premature deaths annually IOM, a.

Having a regular source of care improves chances of receiving personal preventive care and screening services and improves the management of chronic disease. When risk factors, such as high blood pressure, can be identified and treated, the chances of developing conditions such as heart disease can be reduced. Similarly, if diseases can be detected and treated when they are still in their early stages, subsequent rates of morbidity and mortality can often be reduced. Without insurance, the chances of early detection and treatment of risk factors or disease are low.

Forty-two million people in the United States lacked health insurance coverage in Mills, This number represented about 15 percent of the total population of million persons at that time and 17 percent of the population younger than 65 years of age; 10 million of the uninsured are children under the age of 18 future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi 14 percent future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi all childrenand about 32 million are adults between the ages of 18 and 65 about 19 percent of all adults in this age group.

Nearly 3 out of every 10 Americans, more than 70 million people, lacked health insurance for at least a month over a month period. These numbers are greater than the combined populations of Texas, California, and Connecticut. More than 80 percent of uninsured children and adults under the age of 65 lived in working families. Contrary to popular belief, recent immigrants accounted for a relatively small proportion of the uninsured less than one in five. Insurance status is a powerful determinant of access to care: Research consistently finds that persons without insurance are less likely to have any physician visits within a year, have fewer visits annually, and are less likely to have a regular source of care.

Children without insurance are three times more likely than children with Medicaid coverage to have no regular source of care. The uninsured were less likely to receive health care services, even for serious conditions. Future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi consistently finds that persons without insurance are less likely to have any physician visits within a year, have fewer visits annually, and are less likely to have a regular source of care 15 percent of uninsured children do not have a regular provider, whereas just 5 percent of children with Medicaid do not have a regular providerand uninsured adults are more than three times as likely to lack a regular source of care.

However, even when the uninsured receive care, they fare less well than the insured. For example, Hadley and colleagues found that uninsured adult hospital future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi had a significantly higher risk of dying in the hospital than their privately insured counterparts. Emergency and trauma care were also found to vary for insured and future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi patients.

Uninsured persons with traumatic injuries were less likely to be admitted to the hospital. For children, too, being uninsured tends to reduce access to health care and is associated with poorer health. Untreated ear infections, for example, can have permanent consequences of hearing loss or deafness. Many people who are counted as insured have very limited benefits and are exposed to high out-of-pocket expenses or service restrictions. Three areas in which benefits are frequently circumscribed under both public and private insurance plans are preventive services, behavioral health care treatment of mental illness and addictive disordersand oral health care.

When offered, coverage for these services often carries limits that are unrelated to treatment needs and are stricter than those for other types of care King, Cost-sharing requirements for these services may also be higher than those for other commonly covered services.

Access to care for the insured can also be affected by requirements for cost sharing and copayments. Cost sharing is an effective means to reduce the use of health care for trivial or self-limited conditions. Numerous studies, starting with the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, show that copayments also reduce the use of preventive and primary care services by the poor, although not by higher-income groups Solanki et al.

The same effects have been future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi for the use of behavioral health care services Wells et al. Cost sharing may discourage early care seeking, impeding infectious disease surveillance, delaying timely diagnosis and treatment, and posing a threat to the health of the public. The committee encourages health care policy makers in the public and private sectors to reexamine these issues in light of the concerns about bioterrorism.

This committee was not constituted to make specific recommendations about health insurance. The issues are complex, and the failures of health. However, the committee finds that both the scale of the problem and the strong evidence future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi adverse health effects from being uninsured or underinsured make a compelling case that the health of future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi American people as a whole is compromised by the absence of insurance coverage for so many.

Assuring the health of the population in the twenty-first century requires finding a means to guarantee insurance coverage for every person living in this country. Adequate population health cannot be achieved without making comprehensive and affordable health care available to every person residing in the United States.

It is the responsibility of the federal government to lead a national effort to examine the options available to achieve stable health care coverage of individuals and families and to assure the implementation of plans to achieve that result. Absent the availability of health insurance, the role of the safety-net provider is critically important.

Increasing their numbers and assuring their viability can, to some degree, improve the availability of care. That committee further identified core safety-net providers as having two distinguishing characteristics: The organization and delivery of safety-net services vary widely from state to state and community to community Baxter and Mechanic, The safety net consists of public hospital systems; academic health centers; community health centers or clinics funded by federal, state, and local governmental public health agencies see Chapter 3 ; and local health departments themselves although systematic data on the extent of health department services are lacking IOM, a.

Future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi recent study of changes in the capacities and roles of local health departments as safety-net providers found, however, that more than a quarter of the health departments surveyed were the sole safety-net providers in their jurisdictions and that this was more likely to be the case in smaller jurisdictions Keane et al. Services provided by state and local governments often include mental health hospitals and outpatient clinics, substance abuse treatment programs, maternal and child health services, and clinics for the homeless.

In addition, an estimated 1, public hospitals nationwide Legnini et al. These demands can overwhelm the traditional population-oriented mission of the governmental future options resource trading tutorial pdf in hindi health agencies. Furthermore, changes in the funding streams or reimbursement policies for any of these programs or increases in demand for free or subsidized care that inevitably occur in periods of economic downturn create crises for safety-net providers, including those operated by state and local governments see the section Collaboration with Governmental Public Health Agencies later in this chapter for additional discussion.

Intact but Endangered IOM, a: The convergence and potentially adverse consequences of these new and powerful dynamics lead the committee to be highly concerned about the future viability of the safety net. Although safety net providers have proven to be both resilient and resourceful, the committee believes that many providers may be unable to survive the current environment. Taken alone, the growth in Medicaid managed care enrollment; the retrenchment or elimination of key direct and indirect subsidies that providers have relied upon to help finance uncompensated care; and the continued growth in the number of uninsured people would make it difficult for many safety net providers to survive.

Taken together, these trends are beginning to place unparalleled strain on the health care safety net in many parts of the country. The committee believes that the effects of these combined forces and dynamics demand the immediate attention of public policy officials. Intact but Endangered IOM, aaimed at ensuring the continued viability of the health care safety net see Box 5—2.

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Businesses that thrive execute one thing very well: The primary focus of sales managers should be to maximize profit for the team awhile delivering the best possible value to customers. Sales management is the process of developing a sales force, coordinating sales operations, and implementing sales techniques that allow a business to consistently hit, and even surpass, its sales targets. If your business brings in any revenue at all, a sales management strategy is an absolute must.

When it comes to boosting sales performance for any size of operation, no matter the industry, the secret to success is always precise sales management processes. Besides helping your company reach its sales objectives, the sales management process allows you to stay in tune with your industry as it grows, and can be the difference between surviving and flourishing in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Overall, sales management will help businesses and their workers better understand results, predict future performance, and develop a sense of control by covering the following three aspects.

The process will vary from business to business, especially as you work your way down the line, but operations , strategy and analysis are the three key starting or focal points. This may not be a total shocker, but the sales team is the backbone of the company; they are the direct connection between the product and the customer.

All in all, the sales team should feel like they are a part of the company and be equipped with the resources to progress rather than be viewed as money-making machines. When selecting and onboarding new talent , you should take your time to be thorough in training them and developing their skills, regardless of their experience. Once you have a few more hands, the sales team should all be on the same page, working as individuals within a single, collaborative unit.

A more systematic approach will result in fewer errors and greater achievements for the company as a whole. To do this you would need to: Defining the Sales Process Once you have a team and know your targets, you might be wondering: How do you actually carry out the sales?

Therefore, having a sales pipeline, or sales funnel, will make that easier to maneuver these deals to completion. A sales pipeline is a visual sequence of activities to achieve with each prospect, from the initial lead to the closing of the deal. After all, there are some things you cannot control — results. If a salesperson can see their progress, or their activities, they will be motivated to do more work and conquer more challenges.

Successful reporting involves using sales metrics, or quantifiable indicators, that tell you how each aspect of your sales operations is performing and whether you are achieving your targets. With the standard sales funnel, you should be able to measure the following four metrics: Collecting data will allow you to find your ideal customer quicker and, as a result, serve them faster. Who Benefits from Sales Management?

Sales management in practice positively affects everyone involved in the sales cycle. Clarity and scope is essential to sale managements, as they typically need to oversees planning and execution of company wide targets. Having an effective management process will allow them to drive their company forward. A salesperson represents their company and is in direct contact with potential customers whether in person or over the phone or solely online. Sales is tough; to succeed you need to be able to engage your current base while also expanding your reach.

Like the sales manager, scope and clarity via effective sales management boosts confidence and will give the salesperson better visibility of their work. The customer will inevitably have a better experience and be more inclined to benefit from your company and purchase your product or services with an effective sales management process.

They may even spread the word. With all of these parts working well together, a company can set themselves up for success, especially against their competitors. A sales funnel provides a clear view of the opportunities available to a sales team, accurately showing the revenue the team is going to make in the months ahead.

Cloud-based CRMs in particular are great for helping your team increase its collaboration. Because there are so many options, before purchasing any CRM tool you would need to answer the following questions to make the most suitable choice for your unique team:. Your sales process should be simple and save you time, not take up more of it.

For busy salespeople, apps such as Evernote, Any. Also, sales managers can work with a content team to develop content marketing material, or articles that build value around their product or service. After all, selling is an ongoing process: In the same way trials or testers are used to make products more attainable, content can help customers become familiar with your services, especially if it solves a highly relevant problem.

The reason for this is that the more intimate they are with the product, the better than can bring insight to potential customers. Great content is more likely to move consumers along the sales cycle than a salesperson alone would. In fact, great content is what often makes the introduction to potential buyers. Planning is a vital part achieving results. There are quite a few sales management jobs , but they all hold similar responsibilities — refining the sales process and making sure the company moves in a forward direction to hit its goals.

Those who manage sales can be anyone from a director of sales, district sales manager, general manager, regional sales manager, sales and marketing vice president, sales supervisor, and a vice president of sales.

Some of the titles may even be interchangeable depending on the size and structure of your company. Sales managers can come from a variety of backgrounds. Next Steps Ready to learn more? Once you make the decision to start or improve your sales management process, you can start by: Key terms [Sales glossary] Activity-based selling — The theory that you can close more deals by focusing on the activities you can control, such as the number of calls or appointments made, rather than focusing on results, or making a certain amount of money in sales.

Close ratio — Number of deals you close compared to the number of deals you have presented. Cold calling — Getting in contact with a potential customer with no prior contact or relationship in hopes of setting up an appointment of informing them about your product or service. Conversion — The act of turning a prospect into a customer. Customer relationship management CRM — A tool or software to manage your customer relationships and sales pipeline. Deal — An agreement to meet or take action with a prospect.

Demo — A sales presentation of your product or service. Lead — Anyone who could potentially be a customer. Marketing — The act of promoting your product or service. Product — Something made to be sold to a consumer. Quota — A fixed share of something that a person or group is entitled to achieve or contribute to.

Retention rate — The percentage of customers who stay. Sales cycle — The series of predictable phases required to sell a product or a service. Sales cycles can vary greatly among organizations, products and services, and no one sale will be exactly the same.

Sales force — Division of a business responsible for selling products or services. Sales funnel or pipeline — A systematic and visual approach to selling a product or service. The sales pipeline is helpful in showing you exactly where the money is in your sales process. Sales management — The process of developing and coordinating a sales team. Sales management planning — Process of thinking and organizing activities to achieve a desired goal.

Sales management strategy — A method to bring about a desired outcome. Salesperson — Someone who typically works directly with customers to inform them and sell a product while providing customer service. Sales targets — Objectives or goals for a salespeople or company.

Sales velocity — Time it takes for a new deal to close, from the initial contact. If you have comments, suggestions, and of course any corrections, please contact us via email: Gr8 article on how to get started with Sales Management. I also came across another related article on effective Sales Management Strategies https: So how do some sales managers steadily lead a team of driven, goal-oriented sales reps while others encounter constant struggles and roadblocks?

I need some tips related to your content.. I am working in Erp In Chennai If You need any more information kindly make me call to this number Content may not be king, but really outstanding content combined with the strategies mentioned by Dmitry in the Moz article pays big dividends. I read your case study on Moz and I must say you ranked on this high volume searched keywords very cleverly. I read your case study on Moz and you really manage no.

Came over after reviewing your fantastic case study on Moz. I can see why this article has been a success. Incredibly good content in an easy to follow format…kudos to you!

This blog has offered great insight! And very valid points are discussed here. In my opinion you summarized it correctly…keep it up. I enjoyed your detailed case study on Moz about how you plan and execute this article. Management of an organization is the process of establishing objectives and goals of the organization periodically, designing the work system and the organization structure, and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish their aims and objectives and goals of the organization effectively and efficiently.

So, What is Sales Management? Sales Operations Sales Strategy Sales Analysis The process will vary from business to business, especially as you work your way down the line, but operations , strategy and analysis are the three key starting or focal points.

Building the Team This may not be a total shocker, but the sales team is the backbone of the company; they are the direct connection between the product and the customer. In other words, they matter — a lot. Then this is where the fun really begins: What is a sales pipeline? Number of deals in your funnel Average size of a deal in your funnel Close ratio, or average percentage of deals that get won Sales velocity, or average deal lifetime before it is won Collecting data will allow you to find your ideal customer quicker and, as a result, serve them faster.

Reading sales management books or blogs.