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ExtendScript is a scripting language and an associated toolkit developed by Adobe Systems , intended for use with Creative Suite and Technical Communication Suite products.
Software developer — A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst.
According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent, even more so that developers become systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.
In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of one of the phases above. In smaller development environments, a few people or even an individual might handle the complete process.
The word software was coined as a prank as early as , before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC and IBM.
The first company founded to provide products and services was Computer Usage Company in The software industry expanded in the early s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities, universities, government, and business customers created a demand for software.
Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers, some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. Others were done on a basis, and other firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation started to grow. The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the computer in the mids. In the following years, it created a growing market for games, applications.
DOS, Microsofts first operating system product, was the dominant operating system at the time, by the role of cloud developer had been defined, in this context, one definition of a developer in general was published, Developers make software for the world to use.
The job of a developer is to crank out code -- fresh code for new products, code fixes for maintenance, code for business logic, bus factor Software Developer description from the US Department of Labor.
The company is headquartered in San Jose, California, United States, Adobe has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards rich Internet application software development.
Adobes first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the fonts outlines. In the mids, Adobe entered the software market with Illustrator. For example, the fiscal year ended on November 30,, in , Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop.
Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials, on June 1, Adobe launched Acrobat.
As long ago as the s, IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development, a test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. B test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured, C test was the final test before general availability of the product. The usage of beta test to refer to testing done by customers was not done in IBM, rather, IBM used the term field test.
Pre-alpha refers to all activities performed during the project before formal testing. These activities can include requirements analysis, software design, software development, in typical open source development, there are several types of pre-alpha versions. Milestone versions include specific sets of functions and are released as soon as the functionality is complete, the alpha phase of the release life cycle is the first phase to begin software testing.
In this phase, developers generally test the software using white-box techniques, additional validation is then performed using black-box or gray-box techniques, by another testing team.
Moving to black-box testing inside the organization is known as alpha release, alpha software can be unstable and could cause crashes or data loss. Alpha software may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final version, in general, external availability of alpha software is uncommon in proprietary software, while open source software often has publicly available alpha versions.
The alpha phase usually ends with a freeze, indicating that no more features will be added to the software. At this time, the software is said to be feature complete, Beta, named after the second letter of the Greek alphabet, is the software development phase following alpha. Software in the stage is also known as betaware.
Beta phase generally begins when the software is complete but likely to contain a number of known or unknown bugs. The focus of beta testing is reducing impacts to users, often incorporating usability testing, the process of delivering a beta version to the users is called beta release and this is typically the first time that the software is available outside of the organization that developed it.
Beta version software is useful for demonstrations and previews within an organization. Operating system — An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
All computer programs, excluding firmware, require a system to function. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer — from cellular phones, the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around MacOS by Apple Inc.
Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors, other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can run one program at a time.
Multi-tasking may be characterized in preemptive and co-operative types, in preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, e. Solaris, Linux, cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner.
Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem, a distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing, distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine.
When computers in a work in cooperation, they form a distributed system. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in large server warehouses, embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems.
They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy and they are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design, Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is a system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator.
Basic operating system features were developed in the s, such as resident monitor functions that could run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Microsoft Windows — Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture.
Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in , Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. As of September , the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry.
It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel.
Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT.
Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system. MacOS — Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows.
Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X Beginning in with OS X The latest version of macOS is macOS A heavily modified version of Mac OS X Beginning with Mac OS X All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface.
Adobe Creative Suite — Adobe Creative Suite is a software suite of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications developed by Adobe Systems. The last version, Adobe Creative Suite 6, was launched at an event on April 23, Adobe also announced that it would continue to support CS6 and would provide bug fixes, the Creative Suite packages were pulled from Adobes online store, but still remain available via a section of their website.
The following are brief description of the applications in the various Adobe Creative Suite editions. Each edition may come with all or subset of these apps, Adobe Acrobat creates, edits and manages documents in Portable Document Format. Adobe After Effects is a motion graphics and compositing software published by Adobe Systems.
It is often used in film and video post-production, Adobe Audition is a digital audio editor. It has more editing features than its sibling, Adobe Soundbooth, Adobe Bridge is an image organizer and digital asset management app. It features limited integration with other Adobe apps but has no editing capabilities of its own, Adobe Contribute is an HTML editor and a content management system.
It allows a variety of people within an organization to update web pages. Adobe Fireworks is a raster graphics editor for web designers. It could create interactive contents and animations, Adobe Animate, a multimedia authoring program used to create web apps, flash games, films and mobile widgets in the eponymous Adobe Flash format. Its features include a scripting language called ActionScript and bi-directional streaming of digital audio, Adobe Flash Catalyst, an interaction design tool that allow users to transform Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and Fireworks artwork into interactive Adobe Flash projects without writing code.