Package manager

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This manual describes the policy requirements for the Debian distribution. This includes the structure and contents of the Debian archive and several design issues of the operating system, as well as technical requirements that each package must satisfy to be included in the distribution. This manual also describes Debian policy as it relates to creating Debian packages.

It is not a tutorial on how to build packages, nor is it exhaustive where it comes to describing the behavior of the packaging system. Instead, this manual attempts to define the interface to the package management system that the developers have to be conversant with. The footnotes present in this manual are merely informative, and are not part of Debian policy itself.

The appendices to this manual are not necessarily normative, either. Please see Introduction and scope of these appendices for more information. In the normative part of this manual, the words mustshould and mayand the adjectives requiredrecommended and optionalare used to distinguish the significance of the various guidelines in this policy document.

Packages that do not conform to the guidelines denoted by must or required will generally not be considered acceptable for the Debian distribution. Non-conformance with guidelines denoted by should or recommended will generally be considered a bug, but will not necessarily binary packages in relationship a package unsuitable for distribution.

These classifications are roughly equivalent to the bug severities serious for must or required binary packages in relationship violationsminornormal or important for should or recommended directive violations and wishlist for optional items. Much of the information presented in this manual will be useful even when building a package which is to be distributed in some other way or is intended for local use only.

See the Debian Installer internals manual for more information about them. This manual is distributed via the Debian package debian-policy. The current version of this document is also available from the Debian web mirrors at https: Also available from the same directory are several other formats: Included in both the same directory and in the debian-policy package is a standalone copy of Upgrading checklistwhich indicates binary packages in relationship changes between versions of this document.

It was revised on November 27th, by David A. Julian Gilbey largely restructured it in Since Septemberthe responsibility for the contents of this document lies on the debian-policy mailing list. Proposals are discussed there and inserted into policy after a binary packages in relationship consensus is established.

The current binary packages in relationship process is described in an appendix, Debian Policy changes process. The actual editing is done by a group of maintainers that have no editorial powers.

These are the current maintainers:. While the authors of this document have tried hard to avoid typos and other errors, these do still occur. If you discover an error in this manual or if you want to give any comments, suggestions, or criticisms please send an email to the Debian Policy Mailing List, debian-policy lists. Please do not try to reach the individual authors or maintainers of the Policy Manual regarding changes to the Policy.

There are several other documents other than this Policy Manual that are necessary to fully understand some Debian policies and procedures. Finally, a specification for machine-readable copyright files is maintained as part of the debian-policy package using the same procedure as the other policy documents.

Use of this format is optional. Informally, the criteria used for inclusion is that the material meet one of the following requirements:. Please note that these are not mutually exclusive; selected conventions often become parts of standard interfaces.

The Debian system is binary packages in relationship and distributed as a collection of packages. Since there are so many of them currently well overthey are split into sections and given priorities to simplify binary packages in relationship handling of them. Thus, the archive is split into areas [1] based on their licenses and other restrictions. Packages in the other archive areas contribnon-free are not considered to be part binary packages in relationship the Debian distribution, although we support their use and provide infrastructure for them such as our bug-tracking system and mailing lists.

This Debian Policy Manual applies to these packages as well. The main archive area comprises the Debian distribution. Only the packages in this area are considered part of the distribution. None of the packages in the main archive area require software outside of that area to function. Anyone may use, share, modify and redistribute the packages in this archive area freely [2]. The contrib archive area contains supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution, but which require software outside of the distribution to either build or function.

The non-free archive area contains supplemental packages intended to work with the Debian distribution that do not comply with the DFSG or have other problems that make their binary packages in relationship problematic. They may not comply with all of the policy requirements in this manual due to restrictions on modifications or other limitations.

Packages must be placed in non-free if they are not compliant with the DFSG or are encumbered by patents or other legal issues that make their distribution problematic. Programs whose authors encourage the user to make donations are fine for the main distribution, provided that the authors do not claim that not donating is immoral, unethical, illegal or something similar; in such a case they must go in non-free.

Packages whose copyright permission notices or patent problems do not even allow redistribution of binaries only, and where no special permission has been obtained, must not be placed on the Debian FTP site and its mirrors at all. Note that under international copyright law this applies in the United States, toono distribution or modification of a work is allowed without an explicit binary packages in relationship saying so.

Therefore a program without a copyright notice is copyrighted and you may not do anything to binary packages in relationship without risking being sued! Likewise if a program binary packages in relationship a copyright notice but no statement saying what is permitted then nothing is permitted. Many authors are unaware of the problems that restrictive copyrights or lack of copyright notices can cause for the users of their supposedly-free software.

It is often worthwhile contacting such authors diplomatically to ask them to modify their license terms. However, this can be a politically difficult thing to do and you should ask for advice on the debian-legal mailing list first, as explained below. When in doubt about a copyright, send mail to debian-legal lists.

Be prepared to provide us with the copyright statement. The packages in the archive areas maincontrib and non-free are grouped further into sections to simplify handling. However, the maintainer of the Debian archive may override this selection to ensure the consistency of the Debian distribution.

The Section field should be of the form:. The Debian archive maintainers provide the authoritative list of sections. At present, they are: The additional section debian-installer contains special packages used by the installer and is not used for normal Debian packages. For more information about the sections and their definitions, see the list of sections in unstable. Binary packages in relationship information is used to control which packages are included in standard or minimal Debian installations.

Most Debian packages will have a priority of optional. Priority levels other than optional are only used for packages that should be included by default in a standard installation of Debian. The priority of a package is determined solely by the functionality it provides directly to the user.

The priority of a package should not be increased merely because another higher-priority package depends on it; instead, the tools used to construct Debian installations will correctly handle package dependencies. In particular, this means that C-like libraries will almost never have a priority above optionalsince they do not provide functionality directly binary packages in relationship users.

However, as an exception, the maintainers of Debian installers may request an increase of the priority of a package to resolve installation issues and ensure that the correct set of packages is included in a standard or minimal install. Packages which are necessary for the proper functioning of the system usually, this means that dpkg functionality depends on these packages.

Removing a required package may cause your system to become totally broken and you may not even be able to binary packages in relationship dpkg to put things back, so only do so if you know what you are doing. Systems with only the required packages installed have at least enough functionality for the sysadmin to boot binary packages in relationship system and install more software.

These packages provide a reasonably small but binary packages in relationship too limited character-mode system. No two packages that both have a priority of standard or higher may conflict with each other. This priority is deprecated. Use the optional priority instead. This binary packages in relationship should be treated as equivalent to optional. The extra priority was previously used for packages that conflicted with other packages and packages that were only likely to be useful to people with specialized requirements.

However, this distinction was somewhat arbitrary, not consistently followed, binary packages in relationship not useful enough to warrant the maintenance effort. The Debian distribution is based on the Debian package management system, called dpkg. Thus, all packages in the Debian distribution must be provided in the.

This second set of files is called control information files. Among those files are the package maintainer scripts and controlthe binary package control file that contains the control fields for the package. There is unfortunately a collision of terminology here between control information files and files in the Debian binary packages in relationship file format. Throughout this document, a control file refers to a file in the Debian control file format.

These files are documented in Control files and their fields. Only files referred to specifically as control information files are the files included in the control information file member of the.

Most control information files are not in the Debian control file format. The package name is included in the control field Packagethe format of which is described in Binary packages in relationship. The package name is also included binary packages in relationship a part of the file name of the. As a maintainer you should make a judgement about whether the contents of a package is appropriate to include, whether it needs any kind of content warning, and whether some parts should be split out into a separate package so that users who want to avoid certain parts can do so.

If you split out potentially offensive or disturbing material into a separate binary packages in relationship, you should usually mark this in the package name by adding -offensive. For example, cowsay vs cowsay-offensive. In this situation the -offensive package can be Suggested by the core package sbut should not be Recommended or Depended on.

Every package has a version number recorded in its Version control file field, described in Version. The package management system imposes an ordering on version numbers, so that it can tell whether packages are being up- or downgraded and so that package system front end applications can tell whether a binary packages in relationship it finds available is newer than the one installed on the system.

The version number format has the most significant parts as far as comparison is concerned at the beginning. If an upstream package has problematic version numbers they should be converted to a sane form for use in the Version field.

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An essential tool for any modern development platform is a mechanism through which developers can create, share, and consume useful code. Often such code is bundled into "packages" that contain compiled code as DLLs along with other content needed in the projects that consume these packages.

NET are created, hosted, and consumed, and provides the tools for each of those roles. Developers with code to share create packages and publish them to a public or private host. Package consumers obtain those packages from suitable hosts, add them to their projects, and then call a package's functionality in their project code.

NuGet itself then handles all of the intermediate details. Because NuGet supports private hosts alongside the public nuget. You can also use NuGet packages as a convenient way to factor your own code for use in nothing but your own projects.

In short, a NuGet package is a shareable unit of code, but does not require nor imply any particular means of sharing. In its role as a public host, NuGet itself maintains the central repository of over , unique packages at nuget. These packages are employed by millions of. NET Core developers every day.

NuGet also enables you to host packages privately in the cloud such as on Visual Studio Team Services , on a private network, or even on just your local file system. By doing so, those packages are available to only those developers that have access to the host, giving you the ability to make packages available to a specific group of consumers.

The options are explained on Hosting your own NuGet feeds. Through configuration options, you can also control exactly which hosts can be accessed by any given computer, thereby ensuring that packages are obtained from specific sources rather than a public repository like nuget. Whatever its nature, a host serves as the point of connection between package creators and package consumers.

Creators build useful NuGet packages and publish them to a host. Consumers then search for useful and compatible packages on accessible hosts, downloading and including those packages in their projects. Once installed in a project, the packages' APIs are available to the rest of the project code. A "compatible" package means that it contains assemblies built for at least one target. NET framework that's compatible with the consuming project's target framework.

Developers can create packages that are specific to one framework, as with UWP controls, or they can support a wider range of targets. To maximize a package's compatibility, developers target. NET Standard , which all. NET Core projects can consume.

This is the most efficient means for both creators and consumers, as a single package usually containing a single assembly works for all consuming projects. Package developers who require APIs outside of. NET Standard, on the other hand, create separate assemblies for the different target frameworks they want to support and include all of those assemblies in the same package which is called "multi-targeting".

When a consumer installs such a package, NuGet extracts only those assemblies that are needed by the project. A multi-targeting package is, of course, more difficult for its creator to maintain. This documentation therefore focuses on creating packages for. In addition to hosting support, NuGet also provides a variety of tools used by both creators and consumers. See Installing NuGet client tools for how to obtain specific tools.

As you can see, the NuGet tools you work with depend greatly on whether you're creating, consuming, or publishing packages, and the platform on which you're working. Package creators are typically also consumers, as they build on top of functionality that exists in other NuGet packages. And those packages, of course, may in turn depend on still others. For more information, start with the Package creation workflow and Package consumption workflow articles.

The ability to easily build on the work of others is one of most powerful features of a package management system. Accordingly, much of what NuGet does is managing that dependency tree or "graph" on behalf of a project.

Simply said, you need only concern yourself with those packages that you're directly using in a project. If any of those packages themselves consume other packages which can, in turn, consume still others , NuGet takes care of all those down-level dependencies.

The following image shows a project that depends on five packages, which in turn depend on a number of others. Notice that some packages appear multiple times in the dependency graph. For example, there are three different consumers of package B, and each consumer might also specify a different version for that package not shown. This is a common occurrence, especially for widely-used packages.

NuGet fortunately does all the hard work to determine exactly which version of package B satisfies all consumers. NuGet then does the same for all other packages, no matter how deep the dependency graph. For more details on how NuGet performs this service, see Dependency resolution. Because projects can easily move between developer computers, source control repositories, build servers, and so forth, it's highly impractical to keep the binary assemblies of NuGet packages directly bound to a project.

Doing so would make each copy of the project unnecessarily bloated and thereby waste space in source control repositories. It would also make it very difficult to update package binaries to newer versions as updates would have to be applied across all copies of the project. NuGet instead maintains a simple reference list of the packages upon which a project depends, including both top-level and down-level dependencies.

That is, whenever you install a package from some host into a project, NuGet records the package identifier and version number in the reference list. Uninstalling a package, of course, removes it from the list. NuGet then provides a means to restore all referenced packages upon request, as described on Package restore.

When committing a project to source control, or sharing it in some other way, you include only the reference list and exclude any package binaries see Packages and source control.

The computer that receives a project, such as a build server obtaining a copy of the project as part of an automated deployment system, simply asks NuGet to restore dependencies whenever they're needed. Similarly, when developers obtain a copy of a project as when cloning a repository , they can invoke command like nuget restore NuGet CLI , dotnet restore dotnet CLI , or Install-Package Package Manager Console to obtain all the necessary packages.

Visual Studio, for its part, automatically restores packages when building a project provided that automatic restore is enabled, as described on Package restore. Clearly, then, NuGet's primary role where developers are concerned is maintaining that reference list on behalf of your project and providing the means to efficiently restore and update those referenced packages.

This list is maintained in one of two package management formats , as they're called:. Installed or restored packages are stored in a packages folder. PackageReference or "package references in project files" NuGet 4. PackageReference is always used by. To check what format is being used, simply look for packages.

When you have a choice, we recommend using PackageReference. To make these processes work efficiently, NuGet does some behind-the-scenes optimizations.

Most notably, NuGet manages a package cache and a global packages folder to shortcut installation and reinstallation. The cache avoids downloading a package that's already been installed on the machine. The global packages folder allows multiple projects to share the same installed package, thereby reducing NuGet's overall footprint on the computer. The cache and global packages folder are also very helpful when you're frequently restoring a larger number of packages, as on a build server.

For more details on these mechanisms, see Managing the global packages and cache folders. Within an individual project, NuGet manages the overall dependency graph, which again includes resolving multiple references to different versions of the same package.

It's quite common that a project takes a dependency on one or more packages that themselves have the same dependencies. Some of the most useful utility packages on nuget. In the entire dependency graph, then, you could easily have ten different references to different versions of the same package.

To avoid bringing multiple versions of that package into the application itself, NuGet sorts out which single version can be used by all consumers. For more information, see Dependency Resolution. Beyond that, NuGet maintains all the specifications related to how packages are structured including localization and debug symbols and how they are referenced including version ranges and pre-release versions. NuGet also provides various APIs to work with its services programmatically, and provides support for developers who write Visual Studio extensions and project templates.

Take a moment to browse the table of contents for this documentation, and you see all of these capabilities represented there, along with release notes dating back to NuGet's beginnings. Finally, we very much welcome comments and contributions to this documentation—just select the Feedback and Edit commands on the top of any page, or visit the docs repository and docs issue list on GitHub.

We also welcome contributions to NuGet itself through its various GitHub repositories ; NuGet issues can be found on https: The feedback system for this content will be changing soon. Old comments will not be carried over.

If content within a comment thread is important to you, please save a copy. For more information on the upcoming change, we invite you to read our blog post. The flow of packages between creators, hosts, and consumers In its role as a public host, NuGet itself maintains the central repository of over , unique packages at nuget. Package targeting compatibility A "compatible" package means that it contains assemblies built for at least one target.

Note The feedback system for this content will be changing soon. Provides all NuGet capabilities, with some commands applying specifically to package creators, some applying only to consumers, and others applying to both. For example, package creators use the nuget pack command to create a package from various assemblies and related files, package consumers use nuget install to include packages in a project folder, and everyone uses nuget config to set NuGet configuration variables.

NET Core tool chain. Provides PowerShell commands for installing and managing packages in Visual Studio projects. Provides the ability to create packages and restore packages used in a project directly through the MSBuild tool chain.